1. Князь московский - Grand Duke of Moscow – Grand Prince of Moscow Ivan 1 Kalita Simeon the Proud Ivan 2 the Handsome Saint Dmitry 1 Donskoy

1. Князь московский - Grand Duke of Moscow – Grand Prince of Moscow
Ivan 1 Kalita Simeon the Proud Ivan 2 the Handsome Saint Dmitry 1 Donskoy

2. Федор Иоаннович - Fyodor I Ivanovich (Russian: Фёдор I Иванович or Feodor I Ioannovich Russian: Феодор I Иоаннович; 31 May 1557 – 16/17 January (NS) 1598) was the last Rurikid Tsar of Russia (1584–1598), son of Ivan IV (The Terrible) and Anastasia Romanovna. He was born in Moscow and crowned Tsar and Autocrat of all Russia at Assumption Cathedral, Moscow, on 31 May 1584.

3.Иоанн III (лат. Johannes PP. III, в миру — Джованни Каталино, итал. Giovanni Catalino; ? — 13 июля 574) — папа римский с 17 июля 561 по 13 июля 574. Римлянин, вёл борьбу с галльскими епископами, отрицавшими право папы восстанавливать низложенного ими епископа. Завершил строительство базилики апостолов Филиппа и Иакова, которая была посвящена освобождению Италии от готов и арианской ереси. Все материальные достижения его папства погибли во время вторжения лангобардов. Умер 13 июля 573 года. В результате вторжения в Италию лангобардов, престол более года не занимался.

4.Иван Грозный Ivan IV Vasilyevich (Russian: Ива́н Четвёртый, Васи́льевич​ (help·info), Ivan Chetvyorty, Vasilyevich; 25 August 1530 – 28 March [O.S. 18 March] 1584),[1] known in English as Ivan the Terrible (Russian: Ива́н Гро́зный​ (help·info), Ivan Grozny; lit. Fearsome), was Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 until his death. His long reign saw the conquest of the Khanates of Kazan,Astrakhan, and Siberia, transforming Russia into a multiethnic and multiconfessional state spanning almost one billion acres, approximately 4,046,856 km2 (1,562,500 sq mi).[2] Ivan managed countless changes in the progression from a medieval state to an empire and emergingregional power, and became the first ruler to be crowned as Tsar of All Russia.

5.Царь Всея Руси - Fyodor I Ivanovich (Russian: Фёдор I Иванович or Feodor I Ioannovich Russian: Феодор I Иоаннович; 31 May 1557 – 16/17 January (NS) 1598) was the last Rurikid Tsar of Russia (1584–1598), son of Ivan IV (The Terrible) and Anastasia Romanovna. He was born in Moscow and crowned Tsar and Autocrat of all Russia at Assumption Cathedral, Moscow, on 31 May 1584.

Being unhealthy and, by some reports, intellectually disabled, Feodor was only the nominal ruler, having his duties handed over to his wife's brother and trusted minister Boris Godunov[1], who would later succeed Feodor as tsar. Feodor's childless death left Rurikid dynasty extinct, and spurred Russia's descent to the catastrophic Time of Troubles.
In English he is sometimes called Feodor the Bellringer in consequence of his strong faith and inclination to travel the land[citation needed] and ring the bells at churches. However, in Russian the name "Bellringer" is hardly ever used. In Russian documents he is sometimes called blessed(Russian: Блаженный).

6. Московские семьи бояр - Muscovite boyar family

7. Киевское вече – Veche of Kiev In Novgorod, where the veche acquired the greatest prominence, the veche was broadly similar to the Norse thing or the Swiss Landsgemeinde.[2]

8. Судебник - Sudebnik of 1497 (Судебник in Russian, or Code of Law) was a collection of laws introduced by Ivan III in 1497. It played a big part in the centralisation of the Russian state, creation of the nationwide Russian Law and elimination of feudal division.
Sudebnik of tsar Ivan IV (Russian: Судебник), a revised code of laws instituted by his grandfather Ivan the Great. This code can be considered as the result of the first Russian parliament of the feudal Estates type (Zemsky Sobor) of 1549.



The Sudebnik of 1550 liquidated judicial privileges of the aristocracy and strengthened the role of the system of the judicial bodies of the state.

9. Земский собор - The zemsky sobor (Russian: зе́мский собо́р) was the first Russian parliament of the feudal Estates type, in the 16th and 17th centuries. The term roughly means assembly of the land.

The first zemsky sobor was held by tsar Ivan the Terrible in 1549. During his reign he held a number of such gatherings and they became a common tool used to enact major pieces of legislation or to decide controversial issues. Although the Sobors were primarily a tool used to rubberstamp decisions that Ivan had already made, sometimes initiative was taken by the lower nobility and townsfolk. For instance, the tsar was scandalized when the assembly of 1566 asked him to abolish the Oprichnina.

10. Избранная рада - Chosen Rada — термин, введённый князем А. М. Курбским для обозначения круга лиц, составлявших неформальное правительство при Иване Грозном в 1549—1560. Сам термин встречается лишь в сочинении Курбского, тогда как русские источники того времени не дают этому кругу лиц никакого официального названия

11. Боярская дума - Boyar Duma It is also the term for a council to early Russian rulers (Boyar Duma), as well as for city councils in Imperial Russia ('Municipal dumas'), and city and regional legislative bodies in the Russian Federation.

12. Смутное время - The Time of Troubles (Russian: Смутное время) was a period of Russian history comprising the years of interregnum between the death of the last Russian Tsar of the Rurik Dynasty, Feodor Ivanovich, in 1598, and the establishment of the Romanov Dynasty in 1613. In 1601–1603, Russia suffered a famine that killed one-third of the population, about two million. At the time, Russia was occupied by the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the Dymytriads, and suffered from civil uprisings, usurpers and impostors.

13. Опричнина - The oprichnina (Russian: опри́чнина, IPA: [ɐˈprʲit͡ɕnʲɪnə]) is the period ofRussian history between Tsar Ivan the Terrible's 1565 initiation and his 1572 disbanding of a domestic policy of secret police, mass repressions, public executions, and confiscation of land from Russian aristocrats. The six thousand political police enforcing the policy were called oprichniki, and the term oprichnina also applies to the secret police organization[1] and to the territory in which, during that period, the Tsar ruled directly and in which his oprichniki operated.[2]The term oprichnina, which Ivan coined for this policy, derives from the Russian word oprich (Russian: опричь, apart from, except).

14. Опричники An oprichnik (Russian: опри́чник, IPA: [ɐˈprʲit͡ɕnʲɪk], man aside; pluralOprichniki) was a member of an organization established by Tsar Ivan the Terrible to govern the division of Russia known as the Oprichnina (1565-1572). It is thought by some scholars that it was Ivan's second wife, theTatar Maria Temryukovna who first gave the Tsar the idea of forming the organization. This theory comes from a German oprichnik, Heinirich von Staden. Her brother also became a leading oprichnik.

15. Собор Василия Блаженного The Cathedral of the Protection of Most Holy Theotokos on the Moat(Russian: Собор Покрова пресвятой Богородицы, что на Рву), popularly known as Saint Basil's Cathedral (Russian: Собор Василия Блаженного), is a Russian Orthodox church erected on the Red Square in Moscow in 1555–61. Built on the order of Ivan the Terrible to commemorate the capture of Kazanand Astrakhan, it marks the geometric centre of the city and the hub of its growth since the 14th century.[4][5] It was the tallest building in Moscow until the completion of the Ivan the Great Bell Tower in 1600

16. Успенский собор The Cathedral of the Dormition (Russian: Успенский Собор, orUspensky sobor) is a Russian Orthodox church dedicated to theDormition of the Theotokos. It is located on the north side of Cathedral Square of the Moscow Kremlin in Russia, where a narrow alley separates the north from the Patriarch's Palace with the Twelve Apostles Church. Southwest is Ivan the Great Bell Tower. Separately in the southwest, also separated by a narrow passage from the church, is the Palace of Facets .The Cathedral is regarded as the mother church ofMuscovite Russia. In its present form it was 1475-79 at the behest of the Moscow Grand Duke Ivan III by the Italian architect Aristotele Fioravanti. From 1547 to 1896 it is where the Coronation of the Russian monarch was held. In addition, it is the burial place for most of the Moscow Metropolitans and Patriarchs of the Russian Orthodox Church.

17. Святейший правительствующий синод – Holy Synod In several of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches and Eastern Catholic Churches, the patriarch or head bishop is elected by a group of bishops called the Holy Synod. For instance, the Holy Synod is a ruling body of the Georgian Orthodox and Apostolic Church.
In Oriental Orthodoxy the Holy Synod is the highest authority in the church[1] and it formulates the rules and regulations regarding matters of church organisation, faith, and order of service

18. Митрополит Московский Metropolitan of Moscow and All Rus

19. Патриарх всея руси The Holy Patriarch of Moscow and all the Rus' (Russian: Святе́йший Патриарх Московский и всея Руси) is the supreme religious spiritual figure in the Russian Orthodox Church. The Patriarch of Moscow and All Rus' is also the ruling bishop of the diocese of the Moscow City. In addition, in his direct supervision are monasteries and cathedrals.

20. Архиерей – archiereus Archiereus (Russian, arkhierei) is a Greek term for bishop, when considered as the culmination of the priesthood.

It is used in the liturgical books of the Eastern Orthodox Church and Eastern Catholic Church, for those services which correspond to thepontifical services of the Roman Rite. The term is distinct from protoiereus (archpriest), the highest ecclesiastical rank to which a married priest may attain in the Greek Church.

21. Архиепископ archbishop - An archbishop (from Greek ἀρχι-, chief, and ἐπίσκοπος, bishop) is a bishop of higher rank, but not of higher sacramental order above that of the three orders of deacon, priest (presbyter), and bishop. Accordingly, a person does not become an archbishop by ordination.

22. Андрей первозванный Andrei Pervozvanny (Russian: Андрей Первозванный—St Andrew the First-Called) was a Andrei Pervozvanny-class predreadnought battleship built for theImperial Russian Navy during the mid-1900s. The ship's construction was seriously extended by design changes as a result of the Russo-Japanese War and labor unrest after the 1905 Revolution, and she took nearly six years to build. Andrei Pervozvannywas not very active during World War I and her bored sailors joined the generalmutiny of the Baltic Fleet in early 1917. She was used by the Bolsheviks to bombard the rebellious garrison of Fort Krasnaya Gorka during the  Russian Civil War in 1919 and was torpedoed by British Coastal Motor Boats shortly afterwards, as part of theallied intervention in the Russian Civil War. The ship was never fully repaired and wasscrapped in 1923.

23.Александро-Невская лавра - Saint Alexander Nevsky Lavra or Saint Alexander Nevsky Monastery was founded by Peter I of Russia in 1710 at the eastern end of the Nevsky Prospekt in St. Petersburg supposing that that was the site of the Neva Battle in 1240 when Alexander Nevsky, a prince, defeated the Swedes; however, the battle actually took place about 12 miles away from that site.[1] The monastery was founded also to house the relics of St. Alexander Nevsky, patron of the newly-founded Russiancapital; however, the massive silver sarcophagus of St. Alexander Nevsky[2] was relocated during Soviet times to the State Hermitage Museum where it remains (without the relics) today.

24. Воевода - Voivode[1] (derived from Old Slavic, literally meaning “one who leads warriors” or "war leader") is a Slavic title that originally denoted the principal commander of a military force. The word gradually came to denote the governor of a province. The territory ruled or administered by a voivode is known as a voivodeship. In the English language, the title is often translated as "prince" or "duke". In Slavic terminology, the rank of a voivode is considered equal of that of a German Herzog. Today in Poland the term Wojewoda means the centrally-appointed governor of a Polish province or voivodeship (Polish: województwo). The Polish title is sometimes rendered in English as "palatine" or "prince palatine", in charge of a palatinate.

25. Генерал-губернатор - A Governor-General, is a vice-regal person of a monarch in an independent realm or a major colonial circonscription. Depending on the political arrangement of the territory, a Governor General can be a governor of high rank, or a principal governor ranking above "ordinary" governors

26. Статс-секретарь Сената - State Secretary of the Senate

27. Кадет – cadet A cadet is a trainee to become an officer in the military, often a person who is a junior trainee. The term comes from the term "cadet" for younger sons of a noble family.

28. Земства - Zemstvo (Russian: Земство)[1] was a form of local government that was instituted during the great liberal reforms performed in Imperial Russia by Alexander II of Russia. The idea of the zemstvo was elaborated by Nikolay Milyutin, and the first zemstvo laws were put into effect in 1864. After the October Revolution of 1917, the zemstvo system was shut down in most of Russia, only remaining where the Bolsheviks failed to take power.

29. Губерния - A guberniya (Russian: губерния [ɡuˈbʲernʲɪjə]) (also romanized gubernia,guberniia, gubernya) was a major administrative subdivision of the Russian Empireusually translated as government, governorate, or province. Such administrative division was preserved for sometime upon the collapse of the empire in 1917. A guberniya was ruled by a governor (губернатор, gubernator), a word borrowed from Latin gubernator, in turn from Greek kybernetes. Sometimes the term guberniya was informally used to refer to the office of a governor.

30. Уезд - A county is a jurisdiction of local government in certain modern nations. Historically in mainland Europe, the original French term, comté, and its equivalents in other languages (contea, contado, comtat, condado, Grafschaft, Gau, etc.) denoted a jurisdiction under the sovereignty of acount (cf. conte, comte, conde, Graf)

31. Приход - A parish is a territorial unit historically under the pastoral care and clerical jurisdiction of one parish priest, who might be assisted in his pastoral duties by acurate or curates - also priests but not the parish priest - from a more or less centralparish church with its associated organization. It often covered the same geographic area as the manor, under the lay jurisdiction of the Lord of the Manor, which generally shared the same name and from the creation of which the parish may have derived its existence.

32. Имение – Estate - the grounds and tenancies (such as farms, housing, woodland, parkland) associated with a very large property.

33. Мелкопоместное дворянство - Landed gentry is a traditional British social class, consisting of land owners who could live entirely off rental income. Often they work only in an administrative capacity looking after the management of their own lands.

34. Крестьяне - The origins of serfdom in Russia are traced to Kievan Rus in the 11th century. Legal documents of the epoch, such as Russkaya Pravda, distinguished several degrees of feudal dependency of peasants, the term for an unfree peasant in the Russian Empire, krepostnoi krestyanin (крепостной крестьянин), is translated as serf.

35. Бояре - A boyar, or bolyar (Bulgarian: боляр or болярин, Ukrainian: буй or боярин, Russian: боярин,Romanian: boier pronounced [boˈjer] ( listen), Greek: βογιάρος), was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Moscovian, Kievan Rus'ian, Bulgarian, Wallachian, and Moldavian aristocracies, second only to the ruling princes (in Bulgaria, tsars), from the 10th century through the 17th century. The rank has lived on as a surname in Russia and Finland, where it is spelled Pajari

36. Холоп – Slave Slavery is a system under which people are treated as property to be bought and sold, and areforced to work.[1] Slaves can be held against their will from the time of their capture, purchase or birth, and deprived of the right to leave, to refuse to work, or to demand compensation.

37. Ямщик - A coachman is a man whose business it is to drive a coach, a horse-drawn vehicle designed for the conveyance of more than one passenger — and of mail — and covered for protection from the elements. He has also been called a coachee, coachy or whip.

38. Скоморох - The skomorokhs (Sing. скоморох in Russian, скоморохъ in Old East Slavic, скоморaхъ inChurch Slavonic) were medieval East Slavic harlequins, i.e. actors, who could also sing, dance, play musical instruments and compose most of the scores for their oral/musical and dramatic performances. The etymology of the word is not completely clear.[1] There are hypotheses that the word is derived from the Greek σκώμμαρχος (cf. σκῶμμα, "joke"); from the Italian scaramuccia("joker", cf. English scaramouch); from the Arabic masẋara; and many others.

39. Духовенство - Clergy is a generic term used to refer the formal religious leadership within some religions. Aclergyman, churchman or cleric is a member of the clergy, especially one who is a priest,preacher, pastor, or other religious professional. Depending on the religion, clergy usually take care of the ritual aspects of the religious life, teach or otherwise help in spreading the religion's doctrine and practices.

40. Окольничий - Okolnichy (Russian: Око́льничий, IPA: [ɐˈkolʲnʲɪt͡ɕɪj]) was an old rank and a position at the court of Moscow rulers from the Mongol invasion of Rus' until the government reform undertaken by Peter the Great. The word is derived from the Russian word for "close," "near," meaning "sitting close to the Tsar."

41. Былины - Bylina or Bylyna (Russian: были́на; pl. Russian: были́ны Byliny; Ukrainian: билина Bylyna; pl.Ukrainian: били́ни Bylyny) is a traditional East Slavic oral epic narrative poem.[1] Byliny singers loosely utilize historical fact greatly embellished with fantasy or hyperbole to create their songs.[2] The word Bylina is derived from the past tense of the verb “to be” (Russian: быть byt') and implies “something that was.”[3] The term most likely originated with scholars of Russian folklore; in 1839, Sakharov, a Russian folklorist, published an anthology of Russian folklore, a section of which he titled “Byliny of the Russian People,” causing the popularization of the term.[4] Later scholars believe that Sakharov misunderstood the word bylina in the opening of Igor’ Tale as “an ancient poem.” The folk singers of byliny called these songs stariny (Russian: старины) or starinki (Russian: старинки) meaning stories of old

42. Изба - An izba (Russian: изба) is a traditional Russian countryside dwelling. A type of log house, it forms the living quarters of a conventional Russian farmstead. It is generally built close to the road and inside a yard, which also encloses a kitchen garden, hayshed, and barn within a simple woven stick fence. Traditional, old-style izba construction involved the use of simple tools, such as ropes, axes, knives, and spades. Nails were not generally used, as metal was relatively expensive, and neither were saws a common construction tool. It is built in the style of the timber cottages in which Russian peasants dwelt in times past. Both interior and exterior are of split pine tree trunks, the gap between is traditionally filled with river clay, not unlike the Canadian log cabin.

43. Телега - Telega (Russian: Телега) is a type of four-wheel horse-drawn vehicle, whose primary purpose is to carry loads, similar to wain, known in Russia and other countries. It is described and spelled telga in Jules Verne's novel Michael Strogoff.

44. тройка - Troika (driving), a sled or carriage drawn by three horses harnessed side-by-side

45. Дрожки - A droshky or drosky (Russian: дрожки) is a term used for several types of carriage, including:

A low, four-wheeled open carriage used especially in Russia. It consists of a long bench on which the passengers ride sideways or astride, as on a saddle, with their feet on bars near the ground.[1]

Various two-wheeled or four-wheeled public carriages used in Russia and other countries.[2]

The name comes from the Russian droga, pole of a wagon. Baroosh was, briefly in the 1850s, a colloquial Muscovite term for the Droshky.

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